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Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964)Download nowEnlargeShow similar images

Title: Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964)

Description: Former Chief of Staff of the United States Army and General of the Army, Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880-April 5, 1964), shown in 1918 during his service as a brigadier general and chief of staff for the 42nd Division (Rainbow Division) of the U.S. Army of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF). During WWII, MacArthur became Supreme Commander of Allied forces in the Southwest Pacific and only one of five men elevated to the position of General of the Army, a five-star rank; MacArthur, one of America's bravest, most brilliant and even inspired military leaders of the Twentieth Century, was the son of U.S Army Lieutenant General Arthur MacArthur (Arthur MacArthur, Jr., 1845-1912; holder of the Congressional Medal of Honor for leading a charge of Union troops at Missionary Ridge at Chattanooga, Tennessee, in 1863, during the American Civil War), graduated with honors (first in his class of ninety-three) from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1903 as a second lieutenant, assigned to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Douglas MacArthur served as an aide to his father in the Philippines, his father then being the military governor of the Philippines, and, when his father became the military attaché to the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo, visited Japan during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, experience that developed Douglas MacArthur's keen insight into the Oriental military mindset and served him well in dealing with Japanese opponents in World War II; MacArthur, while assigned to the staff of General Frederick Funston (Frederick N. Funston; 1865-1917) then occupying the Mexican city of Vera Cruz (during the April-September 1914 U.S. incursion into Mexico to stop the flow of German arms to Mexican revolutionaries thought hostile to the U.S.), served as an intelligence officer and, exceeding orders, conducted a railroad chase to recapture arms smuggled to the revolutionaries and for which he was nominated as a recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor (denied because he exceeded orders; he would receive the medal for his defense of the Philippines in 1942); MacArthur served as chief of staff of the 42nd U.S. Army Division (Rainbow Division) in 1917 with the rank of colonel upon the U.S. entry of World War I, and proved to be a daring officer who would "lead men from the front" on many occasions, MacArthur, like his father before him, refused to remain in rear positions but lead the very troops he ordered to attack enemy positions and for which he was wounded twice (received two Purple Hearts), and because he refused to wear a gas mask so that he could better lead his men in such attacks and as a result was gassed several times, leaving him with a lifetime respiratory problem; MacArthur, for his World War I services, was promoted to the rank of brigadier general toward the close of the war, becoming commander of the 42nd Division, and later received two Distinguished Service Crosses, seven Silver Stars and the Distinguished Service Medal; MacArthur was often in trouble with superiors over his denouncement of high casualties, adamantly opposing blind mass attacks that created the widespread slaughter in the trench warfare of World War I, at one point, when leading some of his men forward toward a German position, knocking down some of his men and shouting: "On your bellies, boys, crawl toward them, until we can get close enough to rush them!" it was during this war that MacArthur met one of the two men (the other being Major General Charles T. Menoher; 1862-1930) who received more U.S. decorations for WWI service than himself—the legendary Colonel "Wild Bill" Donovan (William Joseph Donovan; 1883-1953; later a major general and head of U.S. military intelligence in WWII, OSS); MacArthur met Donovan at the Battle of the Ourcq River during the Hundred Days Offensive (Allied offensive attacks against German positions, August 8, 1918-November 11, 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens); Donovan, who commanded a battalion that had been decimated at that battle and, badly wounded, was being carried on a stretcher toward a field hospital when MacArthur encountered him, demanding to know the reason for the battalion's heavy casualties (always MacArthur's foremost concern); Donovan told MacArthur that his men had been "almost wiped out" because he and they did not get the promised artillery support in their attack; MacArthur sought out the commander of that artillery unit and found Captain Harry S. Truman (1884-1972), thirty-third President of the U.S. (1945-1953), reportedly telling Truman: "A lot of our boys died because you did not do your job!" MacArthur wrote a derogatory report on Truman's failure to support Donovan's troops (expunged when Truman achieved high political office), one which rankled Truman for the rest of his life and nurtured the deep-seated resentment he always maintained toward MacArthur, and who would, decades later, relieve MacArthur of command during the Korean war on a charge of insubordination; from 1919 to 1922, MacArthur served as the Superintendent or commander of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, where he introduced many beneficial reforms, adding to its curriculum liberal arts, economics and government courses, as well as establishing a code of honor system; from 1922 to 1930 he served in the Philippines, promoted to the rank of major-general in 1925, the youngest to achieve that rank at that time; he was in charge of the U.S. forces that, on orders of President Herbert Hoover (1874-1964), Thirty-First President of the U.S., suppressed the Bonus Army marchers that descended on Washington, D.C., in 1932; MacArthur was Chief of Staff for all U.S. military forces until 1935, instituting effective reforms, establishing new mobilization plans, a centralized air command (General Headquarters, U.S. Army Air Force), reorganizing the U.S. Army into four armies; he aggressively supported the New Deal under President Franklin D. Roosevelt (Franklin Delano Roosevelt; AKA: FDR; 1882-1945), Thirty-Second President of the U.S., by successfully operating the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), and openly opposed pacifism, announcing publicly the need to have a strong military, which brought criticism from many political quarters; he retired as major-general and moved in 1935 to the Philippines where, in 1937, he became, with the rank of field marshal (the only high-ranking U.S. officer to hold that title) the commander all Filipino forces in the Commonwealth of the Philippines; when Japanese aggression appeared to threaten the Philippines and other U.S. territories in the region, President Roosevelt, in July 1941, recalled MacArthur back to duty with the rank of lieutenant-general and named him commander of all U.S. Forces in the Far East; eight hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, December 8, 1941 in Manila, Philippines, Japanese air attacks all but destroyed MacArthur's small and inadequate air force, mostly due to the inadequate defenses set up by MacArthur's air commander, General Lewis H. Brereton (Lewis Hyde Brereton; 1890-1967), who was sacked by MacArthur; actually the thirty-five B-17 Flying Fortresses based in Manila were scrambled before the Japanese air attack, but found no Japanese sea forces and had returned and were refueling on the ground when the Japanese war planes arrived to bomb them; facing overwhelming Japanese invading forces, MacArthur wisely withdrew his U.S. and Filipino troops to the Bataan Peninsula, where he could better stave off attacks in a more confining and manageable battleground, using Corregidor, the island fortress located at the tip of that peninsula in Manila Bay as his headquarters; in a bitter, savagely fought four-month campaign where MacArthur's troops held back superior Japanese forces on Bataan, Japanese supplies, sea forces and reinforcements were bled into that campaign instead of being committed elsewhere on the Japanese schedule of conquest, thus saving enough time for U.S. forces in Hawaii and the mainland to organize and equip successful counterattacks; MacArthur was ordered by President Roosevelt to leave the Philippines and take command of all Allied forces in Australia, which he did; from Australia, MacArthur, as Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific, began launching attacks at Japanese-held strongholds in New Guinea and elsewhere, in a brilliant strategy of island-hopping where MacArthur bypassed and isolated many Japanese bastions, leapfrogging ahead to cut off Japanese supply lines, following that course until he retook the Philippines in 1944; following Japan's surrender, which MacArthur accepted on September 2, 1945, on board the USS Missouri (BB-63), MacArthur became the Supreme Commander of Allied Powers in Japan and where he rebuilt that devastated country economically and politically, instituting a democracy that flourishes to this day (and, during his five-year tenure in that capacity making his most significant achievement to world peace); he also established the military tribunals that held Japanese military commanders responsible for war crimes (atrocities such as the Bataan Death March) that resulted in the executions of many Japanese officers, including General Masaharu Homma (1887-1946) and General Tomoyuki Yamashita (1885-1946); following the attack by North Korea on South Korea in June 1950, MacArthur assumed command of all Allied forces in that conflict, bringing to that war his considerable strategy and military skills, best exampled by his surprise amphibious invasion of Inchon, which saw the retaking of Seoul, the South Korean capital, and the envelopment of most North Korean forces and also led to capture of most of North Korea, until the Chinese incursion that drove back Allied forces; MacArthur at that time publicly complained that the Truman administration had hamstrung him in that he could not bomb the bridges of the Yalu River to stem the Chinese tide of arms and ammunition into Korea and that Truman's appeasement policies with China were all wrong, some of these statements widely reported in the press and causing Truman to fire MacArthur on charges of obvious insubordination, far more significant and serious than the orders MacArthur exceeded in 1914 at Vera Cruz as his statements jeopardized the very world peace he himself so long advocated; MacArthur, however, returned to the U.S. not as a rebuked military commander, but as the genuine lifelong hero he was thought to be by the American public (much to Truman's chagrin), and, after making a triumphant tour of the U.S., with many tickertape parades, and a moving speech in Congress, retired from military life; MacArthur was profiled in many documentary films and in dramatic films he was profiled by Robert Barrat (as "The General") in the moving 1945 John Ford film They Were Expendable; by Barrat again in a cameo role in the 1950 film American Guerilla in the Philippines; by Dayton Lummis in the 1955 film The Court Martial of Billy Mitchell (MacArthur sat on that 1925 tribunal trying Mitchell for insubordination and reportedly rendered the only dissenting vote in the decision to dismiss Mitchell); by Henry Fonda in the 1976 made-for-TV film Collision Course: Truman vs. MacArthur; most notably and effectively by Gregory Peck in the 1977 film MacArthur; by Laurence Olivier in the 1981 film Inchon; by Frank Marth in the 1983 made-for-TV episode Sneak Attack in the TV series Voyagers!; by Rick Jason in the 1983 Japanese film Shosetsu Yoshida gakko; by Robert Vaughn in the 1984 TV series The Last Bastion; by Jon Sidney in the 1986 film Death of A Soldier; by Charlton Heston in the 1988 TV series Korea: The Unknown War; by Walter Edmiston in the 1989 TV series War and Remembrance; by James Sikking in the 1995 made-for-TV film In Pursuit of Honor; by Daniel von Bargen in the 1995 made-for-TV film Truman; by Istemi Betil in the 1998 Turkish film Cumhuriyet; by Frank Novak in the 2001 made-for-TV series The Korean War; by Robert Dawson in the 2005 Russian film Solntse (The Sun, which profiles Emperor Hirohito, the end of WWII, and Hirohito's meeting with MacArthur); by Jeremy Akerman in the 2005 made-for-TV film Code Breakers.

Category: World War I

Keywords: First World War, Great War, World War I, World War II, WWI, WWII, Congressional Gold Medal recipients, Field Marshals, Purple Heart Medal recipients, United States Army Chiefs of Staff, United States presidential candidates, military leaders

Orientation: Portrait

Dimensions: 1500 x 2011 (3.02 MPixels) (1.34)

Print Size: 12.7 x 17.0 cm; 5.0 x 6.7 inches

File Size: 8.66 MB (9,078,016 Bytes)

Resolution: 300 x 300 dpi

Color Depth: 16.7 million (24 BitsPerPixel)

Compression: None

Image Number: 0000048889

Source: Jay Robert Nash Collection

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